Performance of lipoarabinomannan assay using cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis among HIV patients [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

Richard Kwizera, Fiona V. Cresswell, Gerald Mugumya, Micheal Okirwoth, Enock Kagimu, Ananta S. Bangdiwala, Darlisha A. Williams, Joshua Rhein, David R. Boulware, David B. Meya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: The diagnostic utility of the Mycobacteria tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan (TB-LAM) antigen lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has not been extensively studied and the few published studies have conflicting results. Methods: Lumbar CSF from 59 HIV-positive patients with suspected TBM was tested with TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra. The diagnostic performance of CSF TB-LAM was compared to positive CSF Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra (definite TBM) and a composite reference of probable or definite TBM according to the uniform case definition. Results: Of 59 subjects, 12 (20%) had definite TBM and five (9%) had probable TBM. With reference to definite TBM, CSF TB-LAM assay had a diagnostic sensitivity of 33% and specificity of 96%. When compared to a composite reference of definite or probable TBM, the sensitivity was 24% and specificity was 95%. There were two false positive tests with TB-LAM (3+ grade). In-hospital mortality in CSF TB-LAM positive patients was 17% compared to 0% in those with definite TBM by Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra but negative LAM. Conclusions: Lumbar CSF TB-LAM has a poor performance in diagnosing TBM. Both urine TB-LAM and Xpert Ultra should be further investigated in the diagnosis of TBM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123
JournalWellcome Open Research
Volume4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Diagnostics
  • Extra-pulmonary TB
  • HIV
  • Lipoarabinomannan
  • TB-LAM
  • Tuberculous meningitis
  • Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra

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