Perfluoroheptane-Loaded Hollow Gold Nanoshells Reduce Nanobubble Threshold Flux

Jeong Eun Shin, Maria O. Ogunyankin, Joseph A. Zasadzinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The threshold flux for nanobubble formation and liposome rupture is reduced by 50–60% by adding a liquid mixture of tetradecanol and perfluoroheptane to the interior cavity of 40 nm diameter hollow gold nanoshells (HGN), and allowing the tetradecanol to solidify to hold the perfluoroheptane in place. On absorption of picosecond pulses of near-infrared light, the perfluoroheptane vaporizes to initiate cavitation-like nanobubbles as the HGN temperature increases. The lower spinodal temperature and heat capacity of perfluoroheptane relative to water causes the threshold flux for nanobubble formation to decrease. The perfluoroheptane-containing HGN can be linked via thiol–PEG–lipid tethers to carboxyfluorescein-containing liposomes and shows a similar decreased flux necessary for liposome contents release.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1804476
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 15 2019


  • liposomes
  • near-infrared light
  • plasmon resonance
  • spinodal
  • threshold flux

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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