Percutaneous pedicle screws

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Minimally invasive techniques in pedicle screw insertion provide an additional option to a spine surgeon’s armamentarium in dealing with various spine pathologies. It can be applied to practically any surgical setting where conventional open technique is indicated. The most apparent advantage of percutaneous pedicle screw insertion relates to reduced paraspinal muscle damage. Studies have shown that this decreased approach-related morbidity results in decreased operative blood loss, reduced postoperative narcotic use, and greater preservation of trunk extension strength. Because direct visualization of anatomic landmarks is sacrificed, intraoperative imaging is necessary to facilitate safe pedicle screw placement. Two common methods of percutaneous pedicle screw insertion are discussed in this chapter. The first is with real-time two-dimensional (2-D) fluoroscopic imaging. The second is with three-dimensional (3-D) image-guided navigation which employs virtual images taken with an intraoperative CT scanner. Accuracy rates with either method have been demonstrated to be similar or improved compared to open technique. The benefit of improved imaging technology is associated with increased radiation exposure risk. This can be minimized by wearing protective garments, observing safe distance from the beam source, and limiting or eliminating unnecessary exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMinimally Invasive Spine Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationSurgical Techniques and Disease Management
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783030190071
ISBN (Print)9783030190064
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Minimally invasive
  • Pedicle screw insertion
  • Percutaneous


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