Perception of Higher-Order Affordances for Kicking in Soccer

Alper Tunga Peker, Veysel Böge, George S. Bailey, Jeffrey B. Wagman, Thomas A. Stoffregen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We investigated the perception of higher-order interpersonal affordances for kicking that emerged from lower-order personal and interpersonal affordances in the context of soccer. Youth soccer players reported the minimum gap width between two confederates through which they could kick a ball. In Experiment 1,we independently manipulated the egocentric distance of gaps from participants, and the nominal role of the confederates, either as teammates or opponents. In Experiment 2, we additionally varied the direction in which the confederates were facing, either together (i.e., into the gap) or away (i.e., away from the gap). Perceived minimum kickable gap width was larger for farther egocentric distances, when confederates were identified as opponents rather than as teammates, and (in Experiment 2) when confederates faced toward, rather than away from the gap. In both experiments, these main effects were subsumed in statistically significant interactions. We argue that these interactions reveal perception of higher-order interpersonal affordances for kicking that emerged from the simultaneous influence of lower-order affordances. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that these higher-order affordances were perceived, as such, and were not additively combined from independent perception of underlying, lower-order affordances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)623-634
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2023

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© 2023 American Psychological Association


  • affordances
  • perception
  • soccer


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