Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

Elizabeth A. Jacobs, Paul J. Rathouz, Kelly Karavolos, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Imke Janssen, Howard M. Kravitz, Tené T. Lewis, Lynda H. Powell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors. Results: African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race. Conclusions: Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening. This is an important issue that needs to be further explored and addressed in efforts to improve the delivery of healthcare to all groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-145
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

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Women's Health
Early Detection of Cancer
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Breast Neoplasms
Papanicolaou Test
Hispanic Americans
African Americans
Racism
Breast
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Mammography
Natural History
Ethnic Groups
Population
Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies
Logistic Models
Delivery of Health Care

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Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening : The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). / Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Janssen, Imke; Kravitz, Howard M.; Lewis, Tené T.; Powell, Lynda H.

In: Journal of Women's Health, Vol. 23, No. 2, 01.02.2014, p. 138-145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jacobs, Elizabeth A. ; Rathouz, Paul J. ; Karavolos, Kelly ; Everson-Rose, Susan A. ; Janssen, Imke ; Kravitz, Howard M. ; Lewis, Tené T. ; Powell, Lynda H. / Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening : The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). In: Journal of Women's Health. 2014 ; Vol. 23, No. 2. pp. 138-145.
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AU - Karavolos, Kelly

AU - Everson-Rose, Susan A.

AU - Janssen, Imke

AU - Kravitz, Howard M.

AU - Lewis, Tené T.

AU - Powell, Lynda H.

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N2 - Background: Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors. Results: African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race. Conclusions: Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening. This is an important issue that needs to be further explored and addressed in efforts to improve the delivery of healthcare to all groups.

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