Per-Unit Dynamic Models for Grid-Following Photovoltaic Inverters

Hyeonjung Tari Jung, D. Venkatramanan, Manish K. Singh, Sairaj Dhople

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Per-unit models are frequently utilized in power-system analysis. The common approach that is followed is to outline base values for pertinent parameters and signals, and then normalize them to obtain dimensionless and per-unit models. While per-unit dynamic models for synchronous generators are widely documented, those for inverter-based resources are not as common. In this paper, we put forth a per-unit dynamic model for a standard grid-following photovoltaic inverter model. The topology we examine is a single-stage dc-ac voltage-source inverter interfaced to the grid via an LCL filter; the dc side includes the PV array interfaced to the inverter with a dc-link capacitor. The control architecture includes: a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, a controller for regulating the dc-side voltage, a controller to regulate reactive power, an inner-loop current controller, and a standard synchronous-reference-frame phase locked loop for grid synchronization. We anticipate the proposed per-unit dynamic models being useful across scales (residential, commercial, and utility-level) and applications (modeling, time-domain simulations, control design, validation) to a wide range of stakeholders (researchers and practicing engineers).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2023 IEEE 50th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2023
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781665460590
StatePublished - 2023
Event50th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2023 - San Juan, United States
Duration: Jun 11 2023Jun 16 2023

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Conference50th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Juan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.


  • Grid-following inverter
  • Maximum power point tracking
  • per-unit
  • photovoltaic inverter
  • three-phase inverter


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