Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000–2015

Geary W. Olsen, David C. Mair, Cleston C. Lange, Laura M. Harrington, Timothy R. Church, Corinne L. Goldberg, Ross M. Herron, Hank Hanna, John B. Nobiletti, Jorge A. Rios, William K. Reagen, Carol A. Ley

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184 Scopus citations


In 2015, thirteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) were analyzed in human plasma that was collected from a total of 616 American Red Cross male and female blood donors (ages 20–69) at 6 regional blood collection centers. Plasma samples were analyzed using a validated solvent precipitation-isotope dilution direction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The data were analyzed in conjunction with prior cross-sectional investigations [2000–2001 (n =645), 2006 (n =600), and 2010 (n =600) to determine PFAS trends. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean serum (2000–2001) and plasma (2006, 2010, 2015) concentrations (ng/mL) were, respectively: PFHxS (2.3, 1.5, 1.3, 0.9); PFOS (35.1, 14.5, 8.4, 4.3); PFOA (4.7, 3.4, 2.4, 1.1); PFNA (0.6, 1.0, 0.8, 0.4); and PFDA (0.2, 0.3, 0.3, 0.1). The percentage decline in these age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean concentrations from 2000–2001 to 2015 were: PFHxS (61%); PFOS (88%); PFOA (77%); PFNA (33%); and PFDA (50%). The results indicate a continued decline of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors. For the remaining PFAS measured in 2015, including the shorter chain perfluoroalkyls perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the majority of samples were below the lower limit of quantitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-95
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - 2017


  • Biomonitoring
  • PFHxS
  • PFOA
  • PFOS
  • Perfluoroalkyls


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