People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places: The P3 framework for location-based community systems

Quentin Jones, Sukeshini A. Grandhi, Loren Terveen, Steve Whittaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


In this paper we examine an emerging class of systems that link People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places; we call these P3-Systems. Through analyzing the literature, we have identified four major P3-System design techniques: People-Centered systems that use either absolute user location (e.g. Active Badge) or user proximity (e.g. Hocman) and Place-Centered systems based on either a representation of people's use of physical spaces (e.g. Active Map) or on a matching virtual space that enables online interaction linked to physical location (e.g. Geonotes). In addition, each feature can be instantiated synchronously or asynchronously. The P3-System framework organizes existing systems into meaningful categories and structures the design space for an interesting new class of potentially context-aware systems. Our discussion of the framework suggests new ways of understanding and addressing the privacy concerns associated with location aware community system and outlines additional socio-technical challenges and opportunities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-282
Number of pages34
JournalComputer Supported Cooperative Work: CSCW: An International Journal
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Aug 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This material is based on work supported by the United States National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers DST 0308018 and DST 0307459. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation. We would also like to acknowledge support from The NJ Center for Pervasive Information Technology, funded by the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology.


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