Shock occurs when there is energy failure due to inadequate oxygen/ glucose delivery to meet metabolic demands. Shock is a leading cause of death and disability in children worldwide. Types of shock include hypovolemic, cardiogenic, distributive, and obstructive. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical signs and symptoms of each of these types of shock, followed by a discussion of advancements in diagnostic tests and tools and management/treatment principles for different categories of shock.
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