Pediatric Issues in Neuromodulation: Safety, Tolerability and Ethical Considerations.

K. M. Friel, A. M. Gordon, J. B. Carmel, A. Kirton, B. T. Gillick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

11 Scopus citations


Neuromodulation encompasses a variety of methods by which brain function can be monitored or influenced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). As the use of NIBS becomes more common in pediatric populations, it is essential to consider and optimize the safety and ethical application of these techniques. In this chapter, we discuss the safety parameters of NIBS as applied to children. We also discuss the ethics of NIBS use in pediatric populations, which include ensuring that children and their families fully understand and agree to protocols, as well as minimizing risk. While NIBS is an exciting tool with great potential to advance the understanding and treatment of neurological disorders, NIBS must be applied with great concern for safety and ethical parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPediatric Brain Stimulation
Subtitle of host publicationMapping and Modulating The Developing Brain
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9780128020388
ISBN (Print)9780128020012
StatePublished - May 17 2016


  • Cerebral palsy
  • Children
  • Hemiparesis
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation


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