Background: In Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, ribosomal protein RPS6 has an unusual C-terminal extension that resembles histone H1 proteins. To explore homology between a mosquito H1 histone and the RPS6 tail, we took advantage of the Anopheles gambiae genome database to clone a histone H1 gene from an Anopheles stephensi mosquito cell line. Results: We designed specific primers based on RPS6 and histone H1 alignments to recover an Anopheles stephensi histone H1 corresponding to a conceptual An. gambiae protein, with 92% identity. Southern blots suggested that Anopheles stephensi histone H1 gene has multiple variants, as is also the case for histone H1 proteins in Chironomid flies. Conclusions: Histone H1 proteins from Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes share 92% identity to each other, but only 50% identity to a Drosophila homolog. In a phylogenetic analysis, Anopheles, Chironomus and Drosophila histone H1 proteins cluster separately from the histone H1-like, C-terminal tails on RPS6 in Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the resemblance between histone H1 and the C-terminal extensions on mosquito RPS6 has been maintained by convergent evolution.