In this review phencyclidine and related arylcyclo- hexylamines and hallucinogens, using LSD as the prototype, are considered as two distinct classes of abused drugs. Within these classes drugs that are found on the street are discussed, and a current epidemiological summary is provided. The abuse liability and dependence potential of these drugs are evaluated by considering four major determinants of their abuse. First, is the ability of a drug to function as a positive reinforcer and increase the probability of operant behavior leading to its delivery. Animal data describing the reinforcing effects of PCP are reviewed with respect to the influence of variables controlling drug-reinforced behavior; however, there are no animal models of hallucinogen-reinforced behavior. Several methods of quantifying reinforcing efficacy are discussed. A second determinant is the subjective effects of the respective drugs. These effects are described and compared across drugs based on clinical reports in humans and drug discrimination studies in animals. A third determinant is the behavioral and physiological toxicity that results from acute and chronic use of these drugs. Clinical reports and results of sensitive tests that have been developed for laboratory animals are reviewed. A fourth determinant is the dependence potential that exists with these drugs, measured by tolerance development and the extent to which behavioral and physiological disturbances occur when drug use is terminated.