Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with American Indian and Alaska Native communities creates distinct interventions, complicating cross-setting comparisons. Objective: The objective of this study is to develop a method for quantifying intervention exposure in CBPR interventions that differ in their forms across communities, permitting multi-site evaluation. Methods: Attendance data from 195 youth from three Yup'ik communities were coded for the specific protective factor exposure of each youth, based on information from the intervention manual. The coded attendance data were then submitted to latent class analysis to obtain participation patterns. Results: Five patterns of exposure to protective factors were obtained: Internal, External, Limits, Community/family, and Low Protection. Patterns differed significantly by community and youth age. Conclusion: Standardizing interventions by the functions an intervention serves (protective factors promoted) instead of their forms or components (specific activities) can assist in refining CBPR interventions and evaluating effects in culturally distinct settings.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R21AA0016098, James Allen, PI), the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R24MD001626, James Allen, PI), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R21AA015541, Gerald V. Mohatt, PI), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01AA11446, Gerald V. Mohatt, PI), the National Center for Research Resources (P20RR061430, Gerald V. Mohatt, PI, and a University of Alaska International Polar Year Postdoctoral Fellowship award to the second author. We also thank all of the participants, project staff, reviewers, and the action editor for their assistance in completing this research.