Patterns of NSAIDs use and their association with other analgesic use in CKD

the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Investigators

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13 Scopus citations


Background and objectives Avoiding nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is important for safe CKD care. This study examined nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use patterns and their association with other analgesic use in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study is an observational cohort study that enrolled 3939 adults ages 21–74 years old with CKD between 2003 and 2008 using age-based eGFR inclusion criteria. Annual visits between June of 2003 and December of 2011 were organized into 15,917 visit-pairs (with an antecedent and subsequent visit) for 3872 participants with medication information. Demographics, kidney function, and clinical factors were ascertained along with report of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or other analgesic use in the prior 30 days. Results In our study, 24% of participants reported nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use at baseline or at least one follow-up study visit. Having a 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 higher eGFR level at an antecedent visit was associated with higher odds of starting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at a subsequent visit (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 1.56). Seeing a nephrologist at the antecedent visit was associated with lower odds of starting or staying on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at a subsequent visit (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.87 and odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.81, respectively). Starting and stopping nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were both associated with higher odds of increasing the number of other analgesics (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.85 and odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 2.28, respectively) and higher odds of increasing the number of opioid analgesics specifically (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 2.48 and odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.03, respectively). Conclusions Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is common among patients with CKD but less so among those with worse kidney function or those who see a nephrologist. Initiation or discontinuation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is often associated with supplementation with or replacement by, respectively, other analgesics, including opioids, which introduces possible drug-related problems when taking these alternative analgesics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1778-1786
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 7 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.Z., R.M.D., and J.C.F. were supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) grant R01 DK090008. J.B.B. was supported by the Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Funding for the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was obtained under a cooperative agreement from the NIDDK (grants U01DK060990, U01DK060984, U01DK061022, U01DK061021, U01DK061028, U01DK060980, U01DK060963, and U01DK060902). In addition, this work was supported, in part, by Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Clinical and Translational Science Award NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) grant UL1TR000003, Johns Hopkins University grant UL1 TR-000424, University of Maryland General Clinical Research Center grant M01 RR-16500, the Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative of Cleveland, grant UL1TR000439 from the NCATS component of the NIH and the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research grant V 2014.07.28 UL1TR000433, University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science grant UL1RR029879, Tulane University Translational Research in Hypertension and Renal Biology grant P30GM103337, and Kaiser Permanente NIH/National Center for Research Resources University of California, San Francisco–Clinical and Translational Science Institute grant UL1 RR-024131.


  • Analgesics
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Opioid
  • Safety

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