Currently, there is no effective treatment for unresectable hepatic malignancies. Salmonella sp. are known to naturally track to the liver during active infection. A live biological vector was developed for delivery of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) to the liver for anti-tumor purposes. The avirulent and highly immunogenic c4550 strain of Salmonella typhimurium was used to express the IL-2 protein [renamed c4550(pIL-2)]. We have previously demonstrated that the c4550(pIL-2) produces biologically active IL-2 (up to 46.2 IU/ml) and that a single gavage feeding of 107 colony forming units (cfu) of c4550(pIL- 2) significantly reduced the number of hepatic metastases when compared to animals fed salmonella lacking the IL-2 gene or non-treated controls. The goal of the current studies was to determine the pattern of splenic and hepatic colonization of Salmonella-IL2. Hepatic and splenic colonization was determined following administration of 107 cfu of c4550(pIL-2) and c4550(pYA292) via a single garage feeding to C57BL/6 mice. Five experiments of antibiotic regimen administration were conducted where splenic and hepatic homogenates were cultured after 14 days of parenteral and/or oral antibiotics. The natural history of hepatic and splenic colonization was also determined for animals without antibiotic treatment. Despite administration of various antibiotic regimens using different routes, eradication of salmonella with and without IL-2 was not achieved. Salmonella, however, was not cultured from hepatic and splenic tissue at 4 months after a single gavage feeding of salmonella with no specific treatment. In conclusion, oral administration of c4550(pIL-2) may represent a novel form of in vivo biotherapy for unresectable hepatic malignancies. Antibiotics do not accelerate eradication of this bacteria and it appears that c4550(pIL-2) follows the natural pathophysiological of salmonella infection in which eradication from the splenic and hepatic tissue occurs over a period of 2-4 months.