Introduction: Infants with single-ventricle (SV) congenital heart disease (CHD) undergo staged surgical and/or catheter-based palliation and commonly experience feeding challenges and poor growth. Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding or direct breastfeeding (BF) in this population. Aim: To determine (1) HM and BF prevalence for infants with SV CHD, and (2) whether BF at neonatal stage 1 palliation (S1P) discharge is associated with any HM at stage 2 palliation (S2P; ∼4-6 months old). Materials and Methods: Analysis of the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry (2016-2021) using (1) descriptive statistics for prevalence, and (2) logistic regression adjusted for multiple variables (e.g., prematurity, insurance, length of stay) to examine early BF/later HM feeding. Results: Participants included 2,491 infants from 68 sites. HM prevalence ranged from 49.3% any/41.5% exclusive before S1P to 37.1% any/7.0% exclusive at S2P. Direct BF ranged from 16.1% any/7.9% exclusive before S1P to 9.2% any/3.2% exclusive at S2P discharge. Prevalence varied among sites; for example, 0-100% any HM before S1P. Infants BF at S1P discharge had greater odds of any HM (odds ratio = 4.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79-6.07, p < 0.001) and exclusive HM (1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.30, p = 0.039) at S2P. Conclusions: The prevalence of HM and BF for infants with SV CHD was low and declined over time. Direct BF at S1P discharge was associated with increased odds of any HM at S2P. Wide variation suggests that site-specific practices impact feeding outcomes. HM and BF prevalence are suboptimal in this population, and identification of supportive institutional practices is needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NINR, Award #F31NR020577). Content is the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
© 2023 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.
- heart defects
- hypoplastic left heart syndrome
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural