Patterns and practices in how information technology spread around the world

James W. Cortada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Information technology spread around the world faster than most other technologies in recent centuries. A combination of eight approaches made this happen, each occurring simultaneously in varying degrees between the 1950s and the present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-25
Number of pages22
JournalIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Thanks to historical research and the numerous tracking projects sponsored by government agencies, private foundations, and academic researchers, we understand how this process of diffusion occurred in the US.73 OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and EU studies, and those done by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and others, are beginning to reveal similar patterns of diffusion in Western Europe and also in those countries that were behind the Iron Curtain, the latter most notably since the early to mid-1990s.74


  • Biological system modeling
  • Computers
  • Government
  • Industries
  • Information technology
  • Internet
  • Software


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