Patriotism or Paychecks: Who Believes What About Why Soldiers Serve

Ronald R. Krebs, Robert Ralston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Although voluntary recruitment to the military is today the Western norm, we know little about citizens’ beliefs regarding service members’ reasons for joining. This article, reporting and analyzing the results of a nationally representative U.S. survey, rectifies this gap. We find that, despite the reality of market-based recruitment, many Americans continue to subscribe to an idealized image of service members as moved by self-sacrificing patriotism. This belief is most heavily concentrated among conservative Americans. Liberal Americans are more likely to believe that service members join primarily for economic reasons. Those furthest to the left are more inclined to aver that service members join chiefly to escape desperate circumstances. Perhaps most surprising, we discover a disconnect between respondents with military experience and their families: The former are more likely to acknowledge that pay and benefits are a primary motivation for service, whereas their families are more likely to embrace a patriotic service narrative.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArmed Forces and Society
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research has been generously supported by a Grant-in-Aid of Research, Artistry, and Scholarship from the University of Minnesota.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • civil–military relations
  • militarism
  • recruitment/retention
  • veterans

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