Objective: To determine if distinct financial trajectories exist and if they are associated with quality-of-life outcomes. Summary of Background Data: Financial hardship after injury measurably impacts Health-Related Quality of Life outcomes. Financial hardship, encompassing material losses, financial worry, and poor coping mechanisms, is associated with lower quality of life and increased psychological distress. However, recovery is dynamic and financial hardship may change over time. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of 500 moderate-to-severe nonneurologic injured patients in which financial hardship and Health-related Quality of Life outcomes were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months after injury using survey instruments (Short Form-36). Enrollment occurred at an urban, academic, Level 1 trauma center in Memphis, Tennessee during January 2009 to December 2011 and follow-up completed by December 2012. Results: Four hundred seventy-four patients had sufficient data for Group- Based Trajectory Analysis. Four distinct financial hardship trajectories were identified: Financially Secure patients (8.6%) had consistently low hardship over time; Financially Devastated patients had a high degree of hardship immediately after injury and never recovered (51.6%); Financially Frail patients had increasing hardship over time (33.6%); and Financially Resilient patients started with a high degree of hardship but recovered by year end (6.2%). At 12-months, all trajectories had poor Short Form-36 physical component scores and the Financial Frail and Financially Devastated trajectories had poor mental health scores compared to US population norms. Conclusions and Relevance: The Financially Resilient trajectory demonstrates financial hardship after injury can be overcome. Further research into understanding why and how this occurs is needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health under award number K23GM084427. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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- financial hardship
- group based trajectory modeling
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural