Study Type - Diagnostic (non-consecutive cohort study) Level of Evidence 3b OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cancer yield of transrectal prostate biopsies in a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner in patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and recent negative transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2004 and November 2005, patients with at least one previous negative prostate biopsy within the previous 12 months had MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate in a 3-T MRI scanner. Patients with previous positive biopsies for cancer were excluded. Target selection was based on T2-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging studies. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were eligible; their median (range) age was 61 (47-74) years and PSA value 4.90 (1.3-12.3) ng/mL. Most patients had one previous negative biopsy (range 1-4). Four patients had a family history of prostate cancer. There were 37 distinct targets based on T2-weighted imaging. Fifteen of 16 distinct DCE abnormalities were co-localized with a target based on T2-weighted imaging. Despite this correlation, only one of 13 patients had a directed biopsy positive for cancer. Including systematic biopsies, two of 13 patients had a biopsy positive for prostate cancer. One patient had prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and one had atypical glands in the specimen. CONCLUSION: The prostate-cancer yield of transrectal biopsies in a 3-T MRI scanner, among patients with recent negative TRUS-guided prostate biopsies, is similar to repeat systematic TRUS-guided biopsy. DCE correlates with T2-imaging but does not appear to improve prostate cancer yield in this population.
- Dynamic contrast enhancement
- PSA level