Patient-Centered Care preferences & expectations in outpatient pharmacist practice: A three archetype heuristic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Patient-Centered Care (PCC) resides in the center of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners' “Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process” (PPCP) and is essential to successful management of chronic disease. However, the widely recognized importance and relevance of PCC contrasts with the limited number of studies in the pharmacist literature investigating patient preferences and expectations that inform PCC. Filling this gap is vital for improving pharmacist PCC at the micro-level (i.e., within and adjacent to patient-pharmacist encounters), meso-level (i.e., healthcare systems), and macro-level (i.e., legislation, payment, workforce dynamics). Objective: The study's objective was to describe, interpret, and compare patient preferences and expectations of Patient-Centeredness in pharmacist outpatient care. Methods: This mixed methods study used semi-structured, in-depth phone interviews among a purposive national sample of US adult patients with multiple chronic conditions and the experienced outpatient pharmacists caring for them. Interviews aimed to elicit conceptual definitions and concrete experiences of Patient-Centeredness in pharmacist care, were analyzed following Bengtsson's Content Analysis procedures, and assessed for reliability using Perrault and Leigh's Reliability Index. Data trustworthiness was interpreted using processes outlined by Guba & Krefting. Results: Data analysis revealed a three-archetype heuristic of preferences and expectations for pharmacist care: ‘Partner,’ ‘Client,’ and ‘Customer.’ Each respective archetype is described and distinguished from the others across five common factors: Nature of the Relationship & Locus of Control; Care Customization; Encounter Duration & Care Longevity; Intent of Communication; and Source of Value. Exemplar excerpts from study participants also illuminate the meaning and distinctiveness of each respective archetype across the five factors. Conclusions: Findings suggest a novel approach for exploring pharmacist PCC quality, design, evaluation, and value-based payment at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels of care. Future research should include operational field testing to investigate the model's validity, applicability, and consistency in pharmacist PCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1820-1830
Number of pages11
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Issue number10
Early online dateFeb 7 2021
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported by the Peters Endowment for Pharmacy Practice and Innovation at the University of Minnesota; and an Agency for Healthcare Research (AHRQ) – Practice-based Research Methods Fellowship.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.


  • Content analysis
  • Patient preferences
  • Patient-Centered Care
  • Pharmacist practice
  • Pharmacists' Patient Care Process

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.


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