The link between chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Approximately 50% of patients with CHF have some renal dysfunction, and 25% of patients with CKD and serum creatinine levels ranging from 1.5 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL have CHF. The association of CHF with CKD is strong and may contribute to its long-term progression. Anemia is also common in patients with CKD and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. More recently, anemia has been found to be frequently present in patients with CHF, and its presence is associated with worse long-term CHF outcomes. Thus, anemia, CHF, and CKD may be independently related to one another, and this relationship may have important implications for their management.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine|
|Issue number||SUPPL. 3|
|State||Published - Dec 14 2005|
- Chronic heart failure
- Chronic kidney disease