Accelerated graft arteriosclerosis is a major cause of death in human heart transplantation. Despite many investigations, the pathogenesis of this disease remains undetermined and its control inadequate. In this study using a rat heart transplant model and cyclosporin A, a new immunosuppressant, acute rejection was prevented but arteriosclerotic-like vessel disease still developed consistently as early as 20 days postoperatively. The combination of cyclosporin A and dipyridamole prevented the development of this vessel disease in transplanted hearts at 20 and 50 days postoperatively. Sulfinpyrazone and cyclosporin A reduced but did not prevent the disease. These findings suggest that immunologically induced graft arteriosclerosis can be prevented in transplanted rat hearts by the combination of cyclosporin A and dipyridamole.