Paternal programming of breast cancer risk in daughters in a rat model: Opposing effects of animal- and plant-based high-fat diets

Camile Castilho Fontelles, Luiza Nicolosi Guido, Mariana Papaléo Rosim, Fábia de Oliveira Andrade, Lu Jin, Jessica Inchauspe, Vanessa Cardoso Pires, Inar Alves de Castro, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Sonia de Assis, Thomas Prates Ong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Although males contribute half of the embryo's genome, only recently has interest begun to be directed toward the potential impact of paternal experiences on the health of offspring. While there is evidence that paternal malnutrition may increase offspring susceptibility to metabolic diseases, the influence of paternal factors on a daughter's breast cancer risk has been examined in few studies. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, before and during puberty, either a lard-based (high in saturated fats) or a corn oil-based (high in n-6 polyunsaturated fats) high-fat diet (60 % of fat-derived energy). Control animals were fed an AIN-93G control diet (16 % of fat-derived energy). Their 50-day-old female offspring fed only a commercial diet were subjected to the classical model of mammary carcinogenesis based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiation, and mammary tumor development was evaluated. Sperm cells and mammary gland tissue were subjected to cellular and molecular analysis. Results: Compared with female offspring of control diet-fed male rats, offspring of lard-fed male rats did not differ in tumor latency, growth, or multiplicity. However, female offspring of lard-fed male rats had increased elongation of the mammary epithelial tree, number of terminal end buds, and tumor incidence compared with both female offspring of control diet-fed and corn oil-fed male rats. Compared with female offspring of control diet-fed male rats, female offspring of corn oil-fed male rats showed decreased tumor growth but no difference regarding tumor incidence, latency, or multiplicity. Additionally, female offspring of corn oil-fed male rats had longer tumor latency as well as decreased tumor growth and multiplicity compared with female offspring of lard-fed male rats. Paternal consumption of animal- or plant-based high-fat diets elicited opposing effects, with lard rich in saturated fatty acids increasing breast cancer risk in offspring and corn oil rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreasing it. These effects could be linked to alterations in microRNA expression in fathers' sperm and their daughters' mammary glands, and to modifications in breast cancer-related protein expression in this tissue. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of paternal nutrition in affecting future generations' risk of developing breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number71
JournalBreast Cancer Research
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 26 2016

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Female offspring
  • High-fat diet
  • Paternal diet

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