Patellofemoral Anatomy and Its Surgical Implications

Miho J. Tanaka, Betina B. Hinckel, Breana R Siljander, Elizabeth A. Arendt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Several structures serve as primary static restraints to lateral and medial patellar displacement. Current evidence has demonstrated that there is a complex of ligaments both proximal (with corresponding attachments in the femur (medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL)) and distal (medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) and the medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML)) that restrain lateral patellar translation at different degrees of knee flexion. Similarly, descriptions of proximal lateral restraints (with corresponding attachments on the femur (lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL)) and distal lateral restraints (lateral patellotibial ligament (LPTL) and lateral patellomeniscal ligament (LPML)) that restrain medial patellar translation have been described. Anatomical knowledge of these structures is of utmost importance for the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. The purpose of this chapter is to report on the anatomical and surgical implications of the patellar restraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEvidence-Based Management of Complex Knee Injuries
Subtitle of host publicationRestoring the Anatomy to Achieve Best Outcomes
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780323713108
ISBN (Print)9780323713115
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Medial patellofemoral ligament
  • patella
  • retinaculum


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