Patching the heart: Cardiac repair from within and outside

Lei Ye, Wolfram Hubertus Zimmermann, Daniel J. Garry, Jianyi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations


Transplantation of engineered tissue patches containing either progenitor cells or cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair is emerging as an exciting treatment option for patients with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. The beneficial effects may evolve directly from remuscularization or indirectly through paracrine mechanisms that mobilize and activate endogenous progenitor cells to promote neovascularization and remuscularization, inhibit apoptosis, and attenuate left ventricular dilatation and disease progression. Despite encouraging results, further improvements are necessary to enhance current tissue engineering concepts and techniques and to achieve clinical impact. Herein, we review several strategies for cardiac remuscularization and paracrine support that can induce cardiac repair and attenuate left ventricular dysfunction from both within and outside the myocardium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)922-932
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation research
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 13 2013


  • heart failure
  • paracrine
  • tissue engineering
  • tissue therapy

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