Passive smoke exposure trends and workplace policy in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (1985-2001)

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3 Scopus citations


Objective: There has been reduced active smoking, decreased societal acceptance for smoking indoors, and changing smoking policy since the mid-1980s. We quantified passive smoke exposure trends and their relationship with workplace policy. Method: We studied 2504 CARDIA participants (Blacks and Whites, 18-30 years old when recruited in 1985-86 from four US cities, reexamination 2, 5, 7, 10, and 15 years later) who never reported current smoking and attended examinations at 10 or 15 years. Results.: In non-smokers with a college degree (n = 1581), total passive smoke exposure declined from 16.3 h/week in 1985/86 to 2.3 h/week in 2000/01. Less education tended to be associated with more exposure at all timepoints, for example, in high school or less (n = 292) 22.2 h/week in 1985/86 to 8.5 h/week in 2000/01. Those who experienced an increase in the restrictiveness of self-reported workplace smoking policy from 1995/96 to 2000/01 were exposed to almost 3 h per week less passive smoke than those whose workplace policies became less restrictive in this time period. Conclusions: The increasing presence of restrictive workplace policies seemed to be a component of the substantial decline in self-reported passive smoke exposure since 1985.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)490-495
Number of pages6
JournalPreventive medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by contracts N01-HC-95095, N01-HC-48047, N01-HC-48048, and N01-HC-48049 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. We also thank Dr. Gina Wei for her editorial comments.


  • Environmental tobacco smoke pollution
  • Occupational health
  • Passive smoking
  • Socioeconomic factors


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