Particle-induced osteolysis is mediated by TIRAP/mal in vitro and in vivo

Christopher P. Bechtel, Jeremy J. Gebhart, Joscelyn M. Tatro, Endre Kiss-Toth, J. Mark Wilkinson, Edward M. Greenfield

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19 Scopus citations


Background: Proinflammatory signaling by toll-like receptors (TLRs) likely contributes to biologic responses to wear particles causing aseptic loosening. We recently reported associations with aseptic loosening in patients with polymorphisms in the locus encoding an adapter protein specific for TLR-2 and TLR-4 known as toll/interleukin-1 receptor domaincontaining adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal). To directly examine the contribution of TIRAP/Mal, we tested the hypothesis that TIRAP/Mal deficiency reduces the activity of wear particles. Signaling by TLR-2 and TLR-4 through TIRAP/Mal can be activated by bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide or endogenous alarmins. To distinguish between those possibilities, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of TIRAP/Mal depend on the adherence of bacterial PAMPs to the particles. Methods: In vitro mRNA levels and secretion of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin (IL)-1b, and IL-6 were measured after incubating wild-type and TIRAP/Mal2/2 macrophages in the presence or absence of titanium particles with adherent bacterial debris, so-called endotoxin-free particles, or particles with adherent lipopolysaccharide. In vivo osteolysis was measured after implanting titanium particles on the calvaria of wild-type and TIRAP/Mal2/2 mice. Results: TIRAP/Mal deficiency significantly inhibited the activity of titanium particles with adherent bacterial debris to stimulate in vivo osteolysis and in vitro cytokine mRNAs and secretion. Those effects are dependent on adherent PAMPs because removal of >99% of the adherent bacterial debris from the particles significantly reduced their activity and the remaining activity was not dependent on TIRAP/Mal. Moreover, adherence of highly purified lipopolysaccharide to the endotoxin-free particles reconstituted the activity and the dependence on TIRAP/Mal. Conclusions: TIRAP/Mal deficiency reduces inflammatory responses and osteolysis induced by particles with adherent PAMPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-294
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 17 2016

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