Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

Hollie A. Raynor, Andrea M. Anderson, Gary D. Miller, Rebecca Reeves, Linda M. Delahanty, Mara Z. Vitolins, Patricia Harper, Connie Mobley, Kati Konersman, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, Frederick L. Brancati, Jeff Honas, Lawrence Cheskin, Jeanne M. Clark, Kerry Stewart, Richard Rubin, Jeanne Charleston, Kathy Horak, George A. Bray, Kristi RauAllison Strate, Brandi Armand, Frank L. Greenway, Donna H. Ryan, Donald Williamson, Amy Bachand, Michelle Begnaud, Betsy Berhard, Elizabeth Caderette, Barbara Cerniauskas, David Creel, Diane Crow, Helen Guay, Nancy Kora, Kelly LaFleur, Kim Landry, Missy Lingle, Jennifer Perault, Mandy Shipp, Marisa Smith, Elizabeth Tucker, Cora E. Lewis, Sheikilya Thomas, Monika Safford, Vicki DiLillo, Charlotte Bragg, Amy Dobelstein, Carolyn Thorson, Richard S. Crow, Susan K. Raatz, the Look AHEAD Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Background: Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objective: To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months. Design: A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months. Participants/setting: From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group. Main outcome measures: A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed: Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted χ2 tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results: At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater percentage of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants than Diabetes Support and Education participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within Intensive Lifestyle Intervention, a greater percentage of participants consuming two or more meal replacements per day than participants consuming less than one meal replacement per day met most fat-related and food group recommendations. Conclusions: The partial meal replacement plan consumed by Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants was related to superior diet quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)731-742
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.


  • Diet quality
  • Lifestyle intervention
  • Partial meal replacement plan
  • Type 2 diabetes


Dive into the research topics of 'Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this