OBJECTIVE: Mutations in both alleles of parkin have been shown to result in Parkinson disease (PD). However, it is unclear whether haploinsufficiency (presence of a mutation in only 1 of the 2 parkin alleles) increases the risk for PD. METHODS: We performed comprehensive dosage and sequence analysis of all 12 exons of parkin in a sample of 520 independent patients with familial PD and 263 controls. We evaluated whether presence of a single parkin mutation, either a sequence (point mutation or small insertion/deletion) or dosage (whole exon deletion or duplication) mutation, was found at increased frequency in cases as compared with controls. We then compared the clinical characteristics of cases with 0, 1, or 2 parkin mutations. RESULTS: We identified 55 independent patients with PD with at least 1 parkin mutation and 9 controls with a single sequence mutation. Cases and controls had a similar frequency of single sequence mutations (3.1% vs 3.4%, p = 0.83); however, the cases had a significantly higher rate of dosage mutations (2.6% vs 0%, p = 0.009). Cases with a single dosage mutation were more likely to have an earlier age at onset (50% with onset at ≤45 years) compared with those with no parkin mutations (10%, p = 0.00002); this was not true for cases with only a single sequence mutation (25% with onset at ≤45 years, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Parkin haploinsufficiency, specifically for a dosage mutation rather than a point mutation or small insertion/deletion, is a risk factor for familial PD and may be associated with earlier age at onset.