Park-and-Ride Choice Behavior in a Multimodal Network with Overlapping Routes

Alexander Webb, Alireza Khani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This study estimates a discrete choice model from on-board survey data for park-and-ride (PNR) user’s station choice, and finds that users prefer a higher proportion of their trip time spent on transit than in a car. No evidence is found that users choose the PNR location that minimizes their overall travel time, but there is strong evidence that PNR locations closer to the direction of their destination are preferred. No significant relationship is found between PNR choice, user age, income, or gender. PNR facility amenities are found to be insignificant across all models tested, and the rail and bus rapid transit service provide a significant benefit to PNR user utility when compared to the express bus service. This study contributes to existing literature by accounting for route overlap among alternatives using a path size factor in the logit model estimation. A nested logit model for different transit types is estimated, but is surpassed in predictive ability by a multinomial and mixed logit model. Ultimately, the models are found to predict transit route choice more accurately than PNR location choice, improving on the PNR choice prediction by about 11%. Similarly, choice set alternatives that overlap with a user’s observed route are found to generally have higher choice probabilities than non-overlapping alternatives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-160
Number of pages11
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to Metro Transit for sharing the data. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research is conducted at the University of Minnesota Transit Lab, currently supported by the following, but not limited to, sponsors, the National Science Foundation (awards CMMI-1637548 and CMMI-1831140), the Freight Mobility Research Institute (FMRI), TIER 1 Transportation Center, U.S. Department of Transportation (award RR-K78/FAU SP#16-532 AM2), the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Contracts 1003325 WO 111, 1003325 WO 15, and 1003325 WO 44), and the Transitways Research Impact Program (TIRP) (Contract A100460 WO UM2917).

Publisher Copyright:
© National Academy of Sciences: Transportation Research Board 2020.


Dive into the research topics of 'Park-and-Ride Choice Behavior in a Multimodal Network with Overlapping Routes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this