Purpose: Youth smokers have high rates of adverse childhood experiences, and particularly parental incarceration (PI). In Minnesota, 16% of youth have experienced PI, but 55% of daily smokers report PI. However, no research has examined how PI relates to a range of tobacco products, which is critical considering the current e-cigarette epidemic. There is also limited research on protective factors for tobacco use among youth with PI. Methods: Data came from 2016 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 111,091); 85% of Minnesota schools participated. We assessed 30-day use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, smokeless products, e-cigarettes, and dual/poly use. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions, we compared use across current, previous, and no PI experience. We also tested how protective factors related to tobacco use. Results: Youth with current PI experience used all products with higher frequency compared to youth with previous and no PI experience. Use prevalence among youth with current PI were 26.0% (95% CI = 24.1, 27.8) for e-cigarettes, 20.8% (95% CI = 19.1, 22.5) for dual/poly use, 17.8% (95% CI = 16.2, 19.5) for cigarettes, 17.4% (95% CI = 15.8, 19.0) for combustible non-cigarettes, and 9.9% (95% CI = 8.6, 11.2) for smokeless products. Nearly all protective factors were significantly and negatively related to use of all products, regardless of PI experience. Conclusions: Youth with PI experience are at high risk for using multiple tobacco products. These disparities were most pronounced for e-cigarettes, demonstrating the e-cigarette epidemic is disproportionately occurring among youth with current and previous PI experience. All examined protective factors buffer risks for this population of youth.
- Adverse childhood experiences
- Parental incarceration
- Tobacco-related disparities
- Youth populations