The springtail, Folsomia candida, is a soil arthropod commonly used to evaluate environmental toxins. Conflicting data on the toxicity of the herbicide paraquat prompted re-evaluation of its effects on F. candida survival and reproduction. Paraquat has an LC50 of about 80 μM when tested in the absence of charcoal; charcoal, often used in test arenas to facilitate visualization of the white Collembola, has a protective effect. Survivors of paraquat treatment fail to resume molting and oviposition, suggesting an irreversible effect on the Wolbachia symbiont that restores diploidy during parthenogenetic reproduction of this species.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
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- 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-dipyridilium dichloride
- Oxidizing agent
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't