PARADIGM-HF Trial: Secondary Analyses Address Unanswered Questions

Kristin R. Smith, Chia Chi Hsu, Theodore J. Berei, Ahmed Aldemerdash, Ian B. Hollis, Orly Vardeny, Jo E. Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Our aim was to summarize published secondary analyses of the PARADIGM-HF trial. In the original trial, published in September 2014, sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization compared to enalapril. This summary provides a resource for clinicians to review subsequent analyses of the landmark trial evaluating the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan in various subgroups and providing information regarding optimal use of this new therapy in the broader heart failure population. A full list of publications of the existing PARDADIGM-HF post hoc analyses was obtained and summarized, grouped by focus (e.g., severity of illness, tolerability). Twenty-six publications and one abstract analyzing the PARADIGM-HF trial were reviewed, summarizing the most important results that compared the benefits of sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril, including pertinent subgroup information from each analysis. Key publications evaluated the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan based on heart failure severity (i.e., ejection fraction or heart failure risk scores), impact on alternate outcomes, influence of additional therapies, tolerability in patients with comorbidities (i.e., diabetes), long-term benefits, and cost-effectiveness. In addition, nine ongoing phase III and phase IV clinical trials with sacubitril/valsartan were briefly summarized to address potential future uses in more extensive heart failure settings. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril for the primary endpoint in the PARADIGM-HF trial is maintained throughout numerous secondary analyses. Though the subgroups analyzed are based on participants from a single clinical trial, clinicians can more confidently incorporate this novel therapy into practice with expanded knowledge of these existing analyses as well as ongoing prospective trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-298
Number of pages15
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.


  • cardiovascular death
  • cost-effectiveness
  • enalapril
  • heart failure
  • hospitalizations
  • outcomes
  • sacubitril/valsartan


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