Several variants in the TSHR and RET signaling pathways genes have been reported to be related to cancer risk. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants in these genes are associated with the risk of papillary thyroid cancer. A nested case-control study was conducted within the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. Eligible validated papillary thyroid cancer cases (n = 167) and frequency-matched (by sex and birth year) controls (n = 491) donated blood for analysis. There were no statistically significant associations between papillary thyroid cancer and 10 selected polymorphic variants in analyses of men and women combined. A borderline significant increasing risk was found for RET G691S (Ptrend = 0.05) and was especially pronounced among young women. For women under 38 years (the median age at diagnosis), the odds ratios were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.7) for those heterozygous for the RET G691S polymorphism and 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.8) for those who were homozygous (Ptrend = 0.001). Our data provide limited evidence that TSHR- and RET-related genes are related to papillary thyroid cancer risk.