Black box warnings for valproic acid caution clinicians of the potential for fatal hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity. Since 1979, case reports of pancreatitis induced by valproic acid have been published in the medical literature. As a result, pancreatitis was added to the black box warnings for valproic acid. We performed searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and found valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in 45 patients from 31 published articles. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of these patients are summarized. Recommendations for monitoring the potential for pancreatitis to develop in patients receiving valproic acid therapy are described, as are potential mechanisms for inducement of pancreatitis by valproic acid.