Although there have been major advances in the treatment of childhood cancer with an overall survival rate of more than 70%, cancer continues to be the leading cause of death in children resulting from disease. In 1998, 2,500 children in the United States died of cancer-related causes. Each year cancer kills more children than asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, congenital anomalies, and acquired immu nodeficiency syndrome combined. The Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses (APON) is the leading professional organization for nurses caring for children and adolescents with cancer and their families. The highest standards of nursing practice are achieved through education, research, certification, advocacy, and affiliation. It is the position of APON that pain in the child dying of cancer can be effectively managed. This can be accomplished by making the prevention and alleviation of pain a primary goal, partnering with the patient and parents, and aggressively using appropriate pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interven tions. The pediatric oncology nurse has an essential role in the child's pain management at the end of life through nursing assessment, identifying expected outcomes, and performing and evaluating interventions.