The most common childhood genitourinary cancers are Wilms tumour, rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumour (GCT). Long-term survival rates for patients with these tumours are generally excellent, ranging from 80% to 100%. However, the high cure rates have highlighted the need to minimize the long-term complications of treatments (referred to as 'late effects'), which can be caused by the three treatment modalities used to treat genitourinary tumours: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Serious late effects, such as death, second cancers and tumour recurrence, are uncommon but do occur occasionally. Chronic health conditions - such as cardiac, pulmonary and fertility disorders - are more prevalent. Given the high prevalence of late effects, survivors of childhood genitourinary malignancies require regular surveillance and health promotion delivered by health-care providers with specialist knowledge of the long-term complications of treatment.