PABA/NO as an anticancer lead: Analogue synthesis, structure revision, solution chemistry, reactivity toward glutathione, and in vitro activity

Joseph E. Saavedra, Aloka Srinivasan, Gregory S. Buzard, Keith M. Davies, David J. Waterhouse, Keiko Inami, Thomas C. Wilde, Michael L. Citro, Matthew Cuellar, Jeffrey R. Deschamps, Damon Parrish, Paul J. Shami, Victoria J. Findlay, Danyelle M. Townsend, Kenneth D. Tew, Shivendra Singh, Lee Jia, Xinhua Ji, Larry K. Keefer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations

Abstract

PABA/NO is a diazeniumdiolate of structure Me2NN(O)=NOAr (where Ar is a 5-substituted-2,4-dinitrophenyl ring whose 5-substituent is N-methyl-p-aminobenzoic acid). It has shown activity against human ovarian cancer xenografts in mice rivaling that of cisplatin, but it is poorly soluble and relatively unstable in water. Here we report structure-based optimization efforts resulting in three analogues with improved solubility and stability in aqueous solution. We sought to explain PABA/NO's physicochemical uniqueness among these four compounds, whose aminobenzoic acid precursors differ structurally only in the presence or absence of the N-methyl group and/or the position of the carboxyl moiety (meta or para). Studies revealed that PABA/NO's N-methyl-p-aminobenzoic acid substituent is bound to the dinitrobenzene ring via its carboxyl oxygen while the other three are linked through the aniline nitrogen. This constitutes a revision of the previously published PABA/NO structure. All four analogues reacted with GSH to produce bioactive nitric oxide (NO), but PABA/NO was the most reactive. Consistent with PABA/NO's potent suppression of A2780 human ovarian cancer xenograft growth in mice, it was the most potent of the four in the OVCAR-3 cell line.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1157-1164
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of medicinal chemistry
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 9 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'PABA/NO as an anticancer lead: Analogue synthesis, structure revision, solution chemistry, reactivity toward glutathione, and in vitro activity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this