Oxidative stress-mediated post- Translational modifications of redox-sensitive proteins are postulated as a key mechanism underlying age-related cellular dysfunction and disease progression. Peroxiredoxins (PRX) are critical intracellular antioxidants that also regulate redox signaling events. Age-related osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging and oxidative stress on chondrocyte intracellular signaling, with a specific focus on oxidation of cytosolic PRX2 and mitochondrial PRX3. Menadione was used as a model to induce cellular oxidative stress. Compared with chondrocytes isolated from young adult humans, chondrocytes from older adults exhibited higher levels of PRX1-3 hyperoxidation basally and under conditions of oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was associated with inhibition of pro-survival Akt signaling and stimulation of pro-death p38 signaling. These changes were prevented in cultured human chondrocytes by adenoviral expression of catalase targeted to the mitochondria (MCAT) and in cartilage explants fromMCATtransgenic mice. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was observed in situ in human cartilage sections from older adults and in osteoarthritic cartilage. MCAT transgenic mice exhibited less age-related osteoarthritis. These findings demonstrate that age-related oxidative stress can disrupt normal physiological signaling and contribute to osteoarthritis and suggest peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation as a potential mechanism.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institute on Aging Grant RO1 AG044034 (to R. F. L.) and the Ciba-Geigy Endowed Chair of Biochemistry from Rush University Medical Center (to S. C.). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with the contents of this article. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.