Background: Oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are interrelated factors in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, but their linkage to type 2 diabetes is less clear. We examined the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Analysis of 2339 participants in the community-based coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. Participants (age 40.1 ± 3.6 years, 44 % Black, 58 % women) were free of diabetes, and were followed 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident T2D adjusting for the other biomarkers under study, demographic and lifestyle measures, dietary biomarkers, BMI (kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome components. Results: F2-isoprostanes and oxidized LDL (oxidative stress) were positively associated with incident T2D, but the associations were attenuated by adjustment for BMI. C-reactive protein was positively associated with T2D even with full adjustment: HR (95 % CI) = 2.21 (1.26-3.88) for quartile 4 (Q4) v. quartile 1 (Q1). The HR (95 % CI) for T2D for biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction ICAM-1 and E-selectin for Q4 v. Q1 were 1.64 (0.96-2.81) and 1.68 (1.04-2.71) respectively, with full adjustment. Including these two markers in a common risk score incorporating BMI and clinical measures improved the prediction probability of T2D: relative risk for the average person classified up compared to the average person classified down: 1.09, (1.06-1.13), P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were positively associated with incident T2D. ICAM-1 and E-selectin add to the prediction of T2D beyond a common risk score.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The coronary artery risk development in young adults study (CARDIA) is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201300025C and HHSN268201300026C), Northwestern University (HHSN268201300027C), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201300028C), Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201300029C), and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (HHSN268200900041C). CARDIA is also partially supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and an intra-agency agreement between NIA and NHLBI (AG0005). The YALTA study was supported by the grant RO1-HL-53560. This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content.
© 2016 Odegaard et al.
- Endothelial dysfunction
- Oxidative stress
- Type 2 diabetes
- Young adults