Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Amir S. Heravi, Di Zhao, Erin D. Michos, Henrique Doria De Vasconcellos, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Pamela J. Schreiner, Jared P. Reis, James M. Shikany, Cora E. Lewis, Chiadi E. Ndumele, Eliseo Guallar, Pamela Ouyang, Ron C. Hoogeveen, Joao A.C. Lima, Wendy S. Post, Dhananjay Vaidya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction—Oxidative stress is linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is suggested to vary by sex. However, few population-level studies have explored these associations and the majority comprise populations with advanced CVD. We assessed urinary isoprostane concentrations, a standard measure of oxidative stress, in a relatively young and healthy cohort, hypothesizing that higher oxidative stress is associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile and female sex. Methods—Oxidative stress was measured in 475 women and 266 men, aged 48–55 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study using urinary 8-isoprostane (IsoP) and 2,3-dinor-8-isoprostane (IsoP-M). Multivariable-adjusted regression was used to evaluate cross-sectional associations. As secondary analysis, previously measured plasma F2-isoprostanes (plasma IsoP) from another CARDIA subset was similarly analyzed. Results—Mean (SD) ages for men and women were 52.1(2.3) and 52.2(2.2) years, respectively (p = 0.46), and 39% of the participants self-identified as Black (vs. White). Before adjustments, female sex was associated with higher median urinary IsoP (880 vs. 704 ng/g creatinine in men; p < 0.01) and IsoP m (1675 vs. 1284 ng/g creatinine in men; p < 0.01). Higher body mass index (BMI), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides, current smoking, and less physical activity were associated with higher oxidative stress. Diabetes was not associated with urinary IsoP but was associated with lower IsoP m and plasma IsoP. Higher serum creatinine showed diverging associations with higher plasma and lower urinary isoprostane concentrations. Conclusions—Different isoprostane entities exhibit varying association patterns with CVD risk factors, and therefore are complementary, rather than interchangeable, in assessment of oxidative stress. Still, consistently higher isoprostanes among women, smokers, less active persons, and those with higher BMI and plasma triglycerides could reflect higher oxidative stress among these groups. While urinary isoprostanes are indexed to urinary creatinine due to variations in concentration, caution should be exercised when comparing groups with differing serum creatinine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number555
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • 2,3-dinor-8-isoprostane
  • 8-isoprostane
  • cardiovascular disease risk factors
  • oxidative stress
  • urinary isoprostanes

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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