To date there is no effective therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD). High levels of circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies show that plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels are low in patients with AD. To investigate if increasing plasma apoA-I/HDL levels ameliorates AD-like memory deficits and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, we generated a line of triple transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) as well as human apoA-I (AI). Here we show that APP/PS1/AI triple Tg mice have a 2-fold increase of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. When tested in the Morris water maze for spatial orientation abilities, whereas APP/PS1 mice develop age-related learning and memory deficits, APP/PS1/AI mice continue to perform normally during aging. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in the total level and deposition of Aβ in the brains of APP/PS1 and APP/PS1/AI mice, but cerebral amyloid angiopathy was reduced in APP/PS1/AI mice. Also, consistent with the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I/HDL, glial activation was reduced in the brain of APP/PS1/AI mice. In addition, Aβ-induced production of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines was decreased in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures expressing human apoA-I. Therefore, we conclude that overexpression of human apoA-I in the circulation prevents learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice, partly by attenuating neuroinflammation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These findings suggest that elevating plasma apoA-I/HDL levels may be an effective approach to preserve cognitive function in patients with AD.