Ovarian and oocyte targets for development of female contraceptives

Satish Kumar Gupta, Ankita Malik, Ananta Prasad Arukha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: Steroid hormone-based contraceptives have been used by women for long time since their introduction. Efforts have been made to make steroidal contraceptives cost-effective, safe and improve their users compliance. In addition, attempts have been made to develop nonsteroidal contraceptives. Contraceptive vaccines have been investigated as an alternate strategy for contraception.Areas covered: The currently used steroidal contraceptives are reviewed. In addition, status of emerging nonsteroidal contraceptives that inhibit folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and endometrium receptivity targeting phosphodiesterase 3, angiopoietins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, COX-2, progesterone/estrogen receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor are presented. Various approaches to develop contraceptive vaccines aiming to inhibit ovarian follicle development, ovulation, fertilization and implantation including their current applications and limitations are discussed.Expert opinion: Development of new nonsteroidal contraceptives, in addition to long-acting steroidal contraceptives, is pertinent for offering wider choice to women. It is imperative that basic research to discover new targets in the ovaries must be undertaken to facilitate development of novel contraceptives. Further, efforts on studying the feasibility and safety of contraceptive vaccines may be continued to bring these within the realm of application as contraceptives for humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1433-1446
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
S Gupta would like to acknowledge TATA Innovation Fellowship awarded by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. This includes employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents, received or pending, or royalties.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


  • anti-angiogenic agent
  • contraceptive vaccines
  • COX-2 inhibitor
  • estrogen receptor modulator
  • follicle-stimulating hormone receptor
  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  • human chorionic gonadotropin
  • PDE3 inhibitor
  • progesterone receptor modulator
  • steroid hormonebased contraceptives
  • zona pellucida


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