Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3+ (FLT3+) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which has poor prognosis because of high relapse rates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT outcomes are largely unknown in this population. We found that compared with sibling HCT, relapse risks were similar after UCB (n=126) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, P=0.54) and URD (n=91) (HR 0.81, P=0.43). UCB HCT was associated with statistically higher non-relapse mortality compared with sibling HCT (HR 2.32, P=0.02), but not vs URD (HR 1.72, P=0.07). All three cohorts had statistically nonsignificant 3-year LFS: 39% (95% confidence interval (CI): 30-47) after UCB, 43% (95% CI: 30-54) after sibling and 50% (95% CI: 40-60) after URD. Chronic graft-versus-host disease rates were significantly lower after UCB compared with either sibling (HR 0.59, P=0.03) or URD (HR 0.49, P=0.001). Adverse factors for LFS included high leukocyte count at diagnosis and HCT during CR2 (second CR). UCB is a suitable option for adults with FLT3+ AML in the absence of an human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling and its immediate availability may be particularly important for FLT3+ AML where early relapse is common, thus allowing HCT in CR1 (first CR) when outcomes are best.
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© 2017 The Author(s).