OR fire virtual training simulator: design and face validity

The SAGES FUSE Committee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Background: The Virtual Electrosurgical Skill Trainer is a tool for training surgeons the safe operation of electrosurgery tools in both open and minimally invasive surgery. This training includes a dedicated team-training module that focuses on operating room (OR) fire prevention and response. The module was developed to allow trainees, practicing surgeons, anesthesiologist, and nurses to interact with a virtual OR environment, which includes anesthesia apparatus, electrosurgical equipment, a virtual patient, and a fire extinguisher. Wearing a head-mounted display, participants must correctly identify the “fire triangle” elements and then successfully contain an OR fire. Within these virtual reality scenarios, trainees learn to react appropriately to the simulated emergency. A study targeted at establishing the face validity of the virtual OR fire simulator was undertaken at the 2015 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons conference. Methods: Forty-nine subjects with varying experience participated in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. The subjects were asked to complete the OR fire training/prevention sequence in the VEST simulator. Subjects were then asked to answer a subjective preference questionnaire consisting of sixteen questions, focused on the usefulness and fidelity of the simulator. Results: On a 5-point scale, 12 of 13 questions were rated at a mean of 3 or greater (92%). Five questions were rated above 4 (38%), particularly those focusing on the simulator effectiveness and its usefulness in OR fire safety training. A total of 33 of the 49 participants (67%) chose the virtual OR fire trainer over the traditional training methods such as a textbook or an animal model. Conclusions: Training for OR fire emergencies in fully immersive VR environments, such as the VEST trainer, may be the ideal training modality. The face validity of the OR fire training module of the VEST simulator was successfully established on many aspects of the simulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3527-3533
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding This project was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grants NIH/NIBIB 2R01EB005807, 5R01EB010037, 1R01EB009362, 1R01EB014305.

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the FUSE VEST advisory committee, particularly Dr. Malcolm Munro, for the valuable feedback used to guide this research. The authors also grateful acknowledge the assistance of Sean Radigan (CeMSIM, RPI) for the technical support during the development of this simulator, and Becca Kennedy (CeMSIM, RPI) for recording the verbal summary of the training sequence. This project was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grants NIH/NIBIB 2R01EB005807, 5R01EB010037, 1R01EB009362, 1R01EB014305.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • Electrosurgery
  • FUSE
  • OR fire
  • Simulator
  • Virtual reality


Dive into the research topics of 'OR fire virtual training simulator: design and face validity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this