Optimizing ACRT to reduce inclusion formation during the VGF growth of cadmium zinc telluride: II. Application to experiments

Mia S. Divecha, Jedidiah J. McCoy, Jeffrey J. Derby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Two different accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) rotation schedules are assessed, via theoretical computations and growth experiments, according to their ability to reduce tellurium-rich inclusions during the vertical gradient freeze (VGF) of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). A vigorous rotation schedule based on classical ACRT guidelines produces a well-mixed melt that is expected to reduce tellurium inclusions compared to growth without crucible rotation. In contrast, a new ACRT schedule, derived from model-based optimization for interface stability, employs slower rotation with longer periods and is predicted to further reduce inclusions. Growth experiments corroborate these expectations. Namely, both ACRT schedules result in crystals with inclusion size and volume significantly decreased from levels found in material grown with no rotation, and material grown using the computationally optimized ACRT parameters exhibits a median inclusion size that is smaller and with a sharper distribution than in material grown via classical ACRT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number126385
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
StatePublished - Dec 15 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has been supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA Prime Award DE-NA0002565, and Washington State University Subaward 118717-G003369; no official endorsement should be inferred. The authors would like to thank our collaborators from Washington State University, S. Swain and S. Kakkireini, whose experiments efforts motivated this research, and A. Yeckel, who developed and provided support for the Cats2D code at the University of Minnesota. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Prof. Kelvin G. Lynn, who was the principal investigator for the DOE award that funded this research and who passed away in January 2020.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • A1. Computer simulation
  • A1. Fluid flows
  • A1. Morphological stability
  • A2. Accelerated crucible rotation technique
  • A2. Gradient freeze technique
  • B2. Semiconducting II-VI materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimizing ACRT to reduce inclusion formation during the VGF growth of cadmium zinc telluride: II. Application to experiments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this