Optimization of closed-loop electrical stimulation enables robust cerebellar-directed seizure control

Bethany J. Stieve, Thomas J Richner, Chris Krook-Magnuson, Theoden I. Netoff, Esther Krook-Magnuson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Additional treatment options for temporal lobe epilepsy are needed, and potential interventions targeting the cerebellum are of interest. Previous animal work has shown strong inhibition of hippocampal seizures through on-demand optogenetic manipulation of the cerebellum. However, decades of work examining electrical stimulation—a more immediately translatable approach—targeting the cerebellum has produced very mixed results. We were therefore interested in exploring the impact that stimulation parameters may have on seizure outcomes. Using a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we conducted on-demand electrical stimulation of the cerebellar cortex, and varied stimulation charge, frequency and pulse width, resulting in over 1000 different potential combinations of settings. To explore this parameter space in an efficient, data-driven, manner, we utilized Bayesian optimization with Gaussian process regression, implemented in MATLAB with an Expected Improvement Plus acquisition function. We examined three different fitting conditions and two different electrode orientations. Following the optimization process, we conducted additional on-demand experiments to test the effectiveness of selected settings. Regardless of experimental setup, we found that Bayesian optimization allowed identification of effective intervention settings. Additionally, generally similar optimal settings were identified across animals, suggesting that personalized optimization may not always be necessary. While optimal settings were effective, stimulation with settings predicted from the Gaussian process regression to be ineffective failed to provide seizure control. Taken together, our results provide a blueprint for exploration of a large parameter space for seizure control and illustrate that robust inhibition of seizures can be achieved with electrical stimulation of the cerebellum, but only if the correct stimulation parameters are used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-108
Number of pages18
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


  • DBS
  • neuromodulation
  • personalized medicine
  • responsive neurostimulation
  • search algorithm

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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