Optimization in solvent selection for chlorin e6 in photodynamic therapy

Shubhajit Paul, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Lai Wah Chan

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39 Scopus citations


The photophysical properties of chlorin e6 (Ce6) in twelve different protic, aprotic and non-polar solvents were investigated using ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Solvatochromic effects were determined by the changes in quantum yield, Stokes shift, fluorescence half-life and excited state dipole moments of Ce6 in the different solvents. The absorption shifts observed in different solvents were further analyzed using the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft model and the nature of solute-solvent interactions between Ce6 and different protic and aprotic solvents was elucidated. The quantum yields were found highest in protic solvents (except water), followed by aprotic and non-polar solvents. Solvent polarity parameters showed a linear increasing trend with Stokes shift and fluorescence half-life, which indicated the presence of Ce6-solvent interaction. Using the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft model, a direct correlation between the solvent polarity parameters and absorption shift was observed, which substantiated the existence of Ce6-solvent interaction by hydrogen bond formation. The excited state dipole moments in specific protic and aprotic solvents were found to be higher than the ground state dipole moments, implying a more polar nature of Ce6 during excited state transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-291
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Fluorescence
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This research is supported by the Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council under IRG NMRC/1187/2008 (R-148-000-114-213) and GEA-NUS PPRL fund (N-148-000-008-001). There is no conflict of interest.


  • Chlorin e6
  • Kamlet-Abboud-Taft model
  • Quantum yield
  • Stokes shift


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