Optimal training in communication model (OPTiCOM): A programmatic roadmap

Pita Adam, Larry B. Mauksch, Dana L. Brandenburg, Christine Danner, Valerie R. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Teaching primary care residents patient communication skills is essential, complex, and impeded by barriers. We find no models guiding faculty how to train residents in the workplace that integrate necessary system components, the science of physician-patient communication training and competency-based medical education. The aim of this project is to create such a model. Methods: We created OPTiCOM using four steps: (1) communication educator interviews, analysis and theme development; (2) initial model construction; (3) model refinement using expert feedback; (4) structured literature review to validate, refine and finalize the model. Results: Our model contains ten interdependent building blocks organized into four developmental tiers. The Foundational value tier has one building block Naming relationship as a core value. The Expertize and resources tier includes four building blocks addressing: Curricular expertize, Curricular content, Leadership, and Time. The four building blocks in the Application and development tier are Observation form, Faculty development, Technology, and Formative assessment. The Language and culture tier identifies the final building block, Culture promoting continuous improvement in teaching communication. Conclusions: OPTiCOM organizes ten interdependent systems building blocks to maximize and sustain resident learning of communication skills. Practice Implications Residency faculty can use OPTiCOM for self-assessment, program creation and revision.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107573
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank the following people for their many helpful suggestions for design, refinement, clarification, and organization: Jennifer Albee, PhD, Amy Albinger, Jeffrey Borkan, MD, PhD, Tom Egnew, Ed.D, Ronald Epstein, MD, Courtuney Huber, Tom Linde, MSW, Kim Marvel, PhD, Nancy Newman, MD, CJ Peek, PhD, Rebekah Pratt PhD, Julie Schirmer, MSW, Jeffrey Ring, PhD, Jennifer Robohm, PhD,and Mark Vogel, PhD. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. this work has not been published previously, is not under consideration for publication, nor will it be published elsewhere in the same form without the written consent of the copy-right holder. All authors have approved this manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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